Literature data offers evidence that AASs abuse is accompanied with psychiatric manifestations, as well as with different behavioral alterations from mild type, which are social acceptable, to uncontrolled and impulsive behavior with expression of aggression, anxiety, hypomania, and also manic episodes. Numerous investigations were performed on animal experimental models in order to make an insight to mechanisms underlying mechanisms for AASs impact on behavioral alterations. The absolute majority of literature sources declared the anxiogenic effect of AASs when applied in supraphysiological doses. The increased anxiety levels following AASs treatment seems to be a consequence of changes in various neuroregulatory systems (gabaergic, dopaminergic, etc.), as well as alterations in sex hormones receptors in specific brain regions, including hippocampus. Supraphysiological doses of AASs also affect mood by means of increased depressiveness. The prodepressant action of AASs is usually accompanied with significant reduction of growth factors (NGF, BDNF) release with consequent effects on neuromodulatory systems (gabaergic, dopaminergic) in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. When applied in supraphysiological dose AAS significantly affected the quality of cognitive abilities, manifested as significant decline in spatial learning and memory. The negative impact of AASs on cognitive functions was attributed to significant alterations in acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate and serotonin levels in specific brain regions, responsible for regulation of learning and memory.