Volume 1 (2017)

João Conde*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01001
Published Online: 15 September 2017 (Commentary)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701001

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Abstract

Cancer has become the chief proving ground-breaking platforms that can be used for precision medicine. Determining the genetic profile of a tumor, detecting key driver mutations, and trying to disable those drivers with targeted therapies so as to “smash” the brakes on malignant and metastatic cells to control proliferation is the modus operandus of Precision Medicine. Now Cancer Nanotechnology aims to do that for old-line drugs and treatment strategies and bring up reality to the Precision Medicine Initiative. However, how far are we from precision and personalization?

How to Cite

João Conde. Time to empower Cancer Nanotechnology Initiative for Precision Medicine, Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 010001. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701001

History

Received: 02 September 2017, Accepted: 11 September 2017, Published Online: 15 September 2017

Naofumi Shimizu,1* Ken Matsuyama2
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01002
Published Online: 23 September 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701002

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Abstract

This paper describes the capability of active imaging with sub-terahertz (THz) illumination in a smoky environment. The developed illuminator consists of nine uni-traveling-carrier photodiode modules and an optical circuit that generate incoherent sub-THz waves with a center frequency of 833 GHz. Tests on a target at a distance of 115 cm showed that imaging with incoherent sub-THz illumination provides a clear view in black, dense, and high-temperature smoke, for which the visibility was 30 cm for visible light. These results indicate that sub-THz active imaging is an effective way to ensure visibility in fire environments such as a space filled with heavy smoke.

How to Cite

Cite Information: Naofumi Shimizu, Ken Matsuyama. Active imaging with incoherent sub-terahertz radiation in smoky environments. Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01002. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701002

History

Received: 15 May 2017, Accepted: 02 June 2017, Published Online: 23 September 2017

Jianling Zhang, Yan Yao, Haigang Yang, Yuyan Yu, Shoubin Xu, Long Jiang,* Yi Dan*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01003
Published Online: 27 September 2017 (Article)
Doi:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701003

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Abstract

Strengthening the interface between conjugated polymers and TiO2 is of vital importance for promoting electron transfer and enhancing photocatalytic activity, thus providing conjugated polymers/TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts a promising future. Herein, carboxyl-functionalized P3HT was synthesized via copolymerization of 3-thiophenic acid with 3-hexylthiophene, and the resultant polymer was subsequently composited with TiO2, aiming to enhance the interfacial bonding strength through dipolar-dipolar interaction between carboxyl groups (-COOH) and the polar groups (-OH) on the surface of TiO2. Dissolution test suggested that the interfacial bonding increased with the 3-thiophenic acid content within our conditions, and photocatalytic test revealed that carboxyl-functionalized P3HT/TiO2 composites with the highest 3-thiophenic acid content (15%) exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, which is 2.2 and 5.3 times as great as that of unfunctionalized polymer/TiO2 composites and pristine TiO2 for degrading methyl orange, respectively. The significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the favored electron injection and facilitated separation of photogenerated carriers owing to the strengthened interfacial electronic coupling interaction between the carboxyl-functionalized P3HT and TiO2 according to the results of PL spectra and trapping experiments. This suggests that carboxyl-functionalization of P3HT via a facile copolymerization of 3-HT with 3-thiophenic acid might be a general and practical strategy for improving photocatalytic degradation activity in P3HT-based hybrid photocatalysts.

How to Cite

Cite Information: Jianling Zhang, Yan Yao, Haigang Yang, Yuyan Yu, Shoubin Xu, Long Jiang, Yi Dan. A new carboxyl-functionalized P3HT/TiO2 composite photocatalyst: preparation, structure and prompted activity through interfacial engineering. Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01003. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701003

History

Received: 05 June 2017, Accepted: 20 August 2017, Published Online: 27 September 2017

Kiki Kurniawan, Noritake Murakami, Yuto Tango, Takumi Izawa, Kakeru Nishikawa, Ken Watanabe, Hideaki Miyake, Tomoyuki Tajima, Yutaka Takaguchi*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01004
Published Online: 09 October 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701004

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Abstract

Effective hydrogen evolution from water using SWCNT photocatalyst under near-infrared (NIR) light illumination was demonstrated. H2 evolution reactions of 1.2 and 0.40 mmol/h were observed upon chirality-selective photoexcitation by the use of monochromatic light irradiation at 680 and 1000 nm, which are the E22 and E11 absorptions of (8,3) SWCNT, respectively, by the use of SWCNT/fullerodendron photosensitizer in the presence of a sacrifice donor, an electron relay, and a co-catalyst. Apparent quantum yields of this reaction were 0.17 (at 680 nm) and 0.073 (at 1000 nm), respectively. The result provides the first example of photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction triggered by E11 photoexcitation of SWCNTs, and clearly shows the usefulness of SWCNTs in the light absorber for NIR light, which is the second main component of solar radiation.

How to Cite

Citation Information: Kiki Kurniawan, Noritake Murakami, Yuto Tango, Takumi Izawa, Kakeru Nishikawa, Ken Watanabe, Hideaki Miyake, Tomoyuki Tajima, Yutaka Takaguchi. H2-evolving SWCNT Photocatalysts for Effective Use of Solar Energy. Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01004. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701004

History

Received: 31 May 2017, Accepted: 20 June 2017, Published Online: 09 October 2017

Mei Zhu*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01005
Published Online: 13 October 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701005

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Abstract

Split-ring-resonators (SRRs) are one of the most common unit cell designs for metamaterials. Though extensively studied and well understood, such devices are often used as narrow-band filters due to SRRs' sharp resonance to electromagnetic wave. In this work, based on the idea of patterning metal SRRs on both sides of a dielectric substrate while rotating patterns on one side 90o to the other, we show that simple circular SRR can be a building block for broadband filters in terahertz (THz) range. The design principle is detailed with simulation results, showing that such fabricated devices essentially equates to two narrow-band filters on both sides of the substrate connected in series. By changing the unit cell from single SRR to double SRR, we effectively expanded the stop band width of the broadband filter. Devices were created on two types of substrates, 1 mm thick quartz and 100 µm thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET), demonstrating the ease and wide applicability of the fabrication process, while a bandwidth of as large as 1.40 THz has been achieved.

How to Cite

Citation Information: Mei Zhu, A split-ring-resonator-based polarization-insensitive ultra broadband filter in terahertz range, Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01005. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701005

History

Received: 01 June 2017, Accepted: 10 October 2017, Published Online: 13 October 2017

Changlong Chen,* Liuyuan Han, Ranran Lu, Qinglong Liu
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01006
Published Online: 16 October 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701006

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Abstract

WO3 is a type of oxide semiconductor material with bandgap of 2.5-2.8 eV and is considered a promising stuff that can be used in solar light-driven photocatalytic applications. In this work, WO3·0.33H2O films on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates were firstly deposited hydrothermally and then were annealed at 500°C to form WO3. The as-prepared WO3 films possess a hierarchical structure: short WO3 nanorods are assembled into large clusters in a radial form and the large clusters are distributed uniformly on the substrate to form the films. By employing photoelectrochemical etching technique, the WO3 nanorods were further treated to be nanopore-rich structure. When used as photoanodes, the porous WO3 films showed much enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting performance in comparison with the non-etched WO3 films: under the illumination of simulated solar light and without using any oxygen evolution co-catalysts, the photocurrent increased from 0.06 mA/cm2 to 0.23 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode and the overpotential decreased from 1.0 V to 0.8 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode. Such porous WO3 hierarchical nanostructures on conductive substrates based on simple hydrothermal deposition and photoelectrochemical etching are envisioned to provide valuable platforms for other solar-light-driven photocatalytic applications.

How to Cite

Citation Information: , Porous WO3 with Hierarchical Structure on FTO Substrates: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Performance , Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01006. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701006

History

Received: 26 May 2017, Accepted: 10 October 2017, Published Online: 16 October 2017

Lixiu Guan,1 Guifeng Chen,2 Xiaolin Song,2 Hong Wang,2 Junguang Tao2*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01007
Published Online: 26 October 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701007

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Abstract

Herein, different MoS2/TiO2 heterostructures are prepared with appropriate interface modifications. Electronic structure analysis shows that type II band alignments are realized at the interface, which efficiently drives the photo-excited charge to separate. Moreover, the band offsets can be delicately controlled by surface states with significant effect on their photocatalytic performance. In addition, the synergistic effect between MoS2 and TiO2 enhances the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of their hybrids which is tunable via interface engineering. The observed Tafel slop of 66.9 mV/dec for MoS2/TiO2-H complexes suggests the Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism. The enhanced activities was attributed to the abundant active sites at the interfaces as well as the improved charge transfer efficiency.

How to Cite

Citation Information: Lixiu Guan, Guifeng Chen, Xiaolin Song, Hong Wang, Junguang Tao, Synergistic effect of MoS2/TiO2 heterostructures with enhanced photo- and electro-catalytic performance , Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01007. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701007

History

Received: 15 May 2017, Accepted: 19 October 2017, Published Online: 26 October 2017

Yoshihiro Shimazu*
Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01008
Published Online: 27 October 2017 (Article)
DOI:10.11605/j.pnrs.201701008

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Abstract

Recent studies on single- and multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) devices have revealed their promising characteristics as novel semiconductor devices. Here, we report the effects of environmental gases on the hysteresis in the transfer characteristics and observation of an anomalously large hysteresis below 1K for back-gated multilayered MoS2 field-effect transistors. Comparisons between different gases (oxygen, nitrogen, air, and nitrogen with varying relative humidities) revealed that water molecules acting as charge-trapping (dominantly hole-trapping) centers are the main cause of hysteresis. While the hysteresis persisted even after pumping out the environmental gas for longer than 24 h at room temperature, it disappeared when the device was cooled to 240 K, suggesting a considerable increase in the time constant of the charge trapping/detrapping at these modestly low temperatures. Below 1 K, we observed for the first time an anomalously large hysteresis, which is not attributed to charge trapping. We hypothesize that this hysteresis results from the slow injection of electrons via quantum tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts. The size of the hysteresis increased with increase in the scan rate of the gate voltage, which is consistent with the possibility of very slow injection of electrons.

How to Cite

Citation Information: Yoshihiro Shimazu, Hysteresis of Transfer Characteristics in Field-Effect Transistors with a Molybdenum Disulfide Channel, Proceedings of the Nature Research Society, 2017, 1, 01008. doi: 10.11605/j.pnrs.201701008

History

Received: 26 May 2017, Accepted: 23 August 2017, Published Online: 27 October 2017